Making Grooming Less Scary for Your Puppy A Step-by-Step Guide

Some puppy breeds require regular grooming in order to maintain their coat and prevent unnecessary medical conditions. Matted fur around their ears and eyes can cause permanent damage to their sight and hearing. Fur that is excessively dirty can cause skin infections and create a breeding ground for fleas and ticks.

Many people purchase fluffy puppies without realizing how hard it can be and how important it is to keep them groomed. Making sure that your pooch is comfortable with the grooming experience can save you both from stressful and potentially harmful experiences. A puppy that goes berserk whenever the clippers come out can accidentally injure himself or you. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to make grooming less traumatizing for you and your little fur ball.

Step One- Touching

Start by touching your puppy’s ears and feet when you’re at home. It’s best to do this when your puppy is feeling calm and relaxed. The ears and paws are some of the most sensitive places on dogs and they are usually protective of these body parts. When you interact with these parts regularly, you can condition your dog to know that you’re not trying to hurt him when you reach for these tender areas.

Oral care is another aspect of keeping your dog clean and most puppies are not familiar with toothbrushes or having their mouth invaded. Start by getting your puppy used to the feeling of your finger in his mouth. Next, add a small amount of toothpaste to your finger and let him become familiar with the taste and smell. When your pup is used to this, you can upgrade to actual cleaning tools.

Step Two- Noise Desensitization

One of the scariest parts about grooming for a dog is the sound and feeling of the clippers. If you have a pair of clippers at home, bring them out and turn them on when your pooch is feeling relaxed. The purpose of this is to get them used to the sound.

Try lightly touching your puppy’s head and other places with the clippers to show him it doesn’t hurt. You can make this practice even more efficient by offering him treats while you do this. This helps create a positive association with the clippers. A loud electric toothbrush will also suit this training method.

Step Three- Move Slowly

This step applies to the previous two. When you bring out the clippers or other grooming tools, make sure you move slowly and cautiously toward your dog. Sudden movements can excite or frighten your pup which is not conducive to grooming. Let Spike sniff the tools and become familiar with them in his own puppy way.

Step Four- Minimize the Mess

You can help lessen the frequency and intensity of puppy grooming by minimizing the access your dog has to dirty places. Do your best to keep Fido out of the mud, rain and snow slush. Some products such as Safe Paw are designed to eliminate snow and ice on your driveway and patio. Safe Paw helps reduce the amount of snow and ice that can stick to your dog’s fur and paws.

Puppy Love and Safe Paw A Perfect Match – A Veterinarian’s Story

As a vet, I diagnose many conditions in dogs every week. Most problems are usually injuries, skin infections, and gastrointestinal problems. All these are easily treatable and most of the pets who are brought to usually recover pretty soon after I’ve given them injections or prescribed medicine.

The winter season is however a different case all together in terms of the cases I get to handle. Most dogs and puppies who are brought to my clinic present with skin and paw injuries and signs of calcium chloride poisoning. As a vet who has been in practice for several years, I am able to recognize the signs of calcium chloride poisoning immediately I see a dog who exhibits such signs.

Whenever a dog has been brought to me with such signs during winter, I attribute their problem to exposure to snow melters on roads and sidewalks which contain calcium chloride. After treating the dogs, I always ask their owners to ditch the snow melter they have been using and instead start using Safe Paw as it is very dog friendly.

I remember an incident when one gentleman brought his little German Shepherd to me with symptoms of calcium chloride poisoning and within the same day, a lady who lived in the same neighborhood came with her poodle who had also suffered calcium chloride poisoning. I treated both dogs and gave their owners the same advice of melting ice with Safe Paw. I was thinking the poodle would be last case I would see from that neighborhood with calcium chloride poisoning symptoms that week but I was wrong.

The next day which was a Friday, four dog owners from that neighborhood all brought their pets to me with calcium chloride poisoning. I treated the dogs but I never stopped there. I was alarmed by the high number of calcium chloride poisoning cases in that area and as a vet who has concern for pets, I felt I needed to something to help the dogs in that area that winter. I therefore organized with one of the dog owners who had come to see me to organize a meeting for me with dog owners in the entire neighborhood that Saturday so that I could advise them on what to do to end the problems the dogs were experiencing.

The meeting was quite successful. I had expected only a few dog owners to show up but it was quite the opposite, the elementary school room to in which we were meeting was packed full of dog owners and their dogs who were eagerly waiting to hear from me. I was a bit late as I had passed by a store to purchase samples of Safe Paw to show my audience.

I took the group through the importance of keeping their dogs safe during winter and also through the dangers of certain ice melters. I then told them about Safe Paw and showed them the bottles I had carried along. They came to an agreement that they were all going to be using Safe Paw to melt the snow on their driveways and sidewalks so as to protect all the dogs in that neighborhood. We all left feeling happy at the success of the meeting. To cut a long story short, no dog has been brought to my clinic with calcium chloride poisoning symptoms from that neighborhood ever since that day. My records can attest to this.

Safe Paw is both dog and child friendly. It is made from non poisonous yet effective ingredients. It has been used by many dog owners over the years to melt snow around their homes during winter. Safe Paw, which is manufactured by Gaia Enterprises, is 100% salt-free. It has in the past been issued with a PTPA Green Product Seal. It has also been listed in the Whole Green Catalog’s 1000 Best Things for You and the Earth.

How To Properly Bathe A Puppy

When you decide to keep a pet dog, it means you are ready to take up the responsibilities that come with it. You would want to maintain a high level of hygiene for your family’s and the dog’s sake, especially if it’s going to spend most of its time in the main house. Knowing about your dog’s hygiene needs is very important to avoid any complications. Bathing your dog occasionally is the very first step you take to ensure that it stays healthy at all times. 

If you train your dog to bathe at the puppy stage (about 8 – 10 weeks of age) you are likely to have an easy time doing it later-on. It definitely is the best way to train your puppy. So the big question is; how do you properly bathe a puppy?
Bathing a puppy is not much of a hustle; the process basically takes about 5 maximum. First, you need to know your requirements, and they include;

· Bathing unit – you might choose a basin, a or a small tub if you wish
· Puppy shampoo – make sure you get the best shampoo for your puppy
· Soft brush
· Nice fluffy towels
· Puppy treats
 
1. First, you need to ensure that the puppy is happy during this important moment. To do this, you will have to feed it with the puppy treats. It helps make the process easier in the long run.

2. The soft brush is purposely meant to brush the puppy’s coat before the bath. This will ensure that the puppy’s coat doesn’t get knottier after the bath.

3. The bathing water should be warm, not hot or not so cold. It’s best to test it yourself before bathing the puppy. Lukewarm should be the ideal temperature to use.

4. Gently wet the puppy all over using a cup or water sprayer; be keen to avoid getting water on the puppy’s ears, nose and eyes as it may agitate them. 

5. Pour a little shampoo to your hand and gently lather-up the puppy. Ensure that the shampoo gets to every part of the puppy’s body avoiding the face area including the ears. Focus more on the back end, including under the belly and feet area.

6. Once the puppy is well shampooed rinse all the shampoo leather from its body. Be very cautious at this stage as you should leave any shampoo on the coat as it can irritate your puppy later on. To ensure that your puppy is well rinsed, confirm the water running down from its body is clear.  

7. Then using the fluffy towel, wrap up your puppy and dry it off gently. Ensure its fur is as dry as possible, you can further opt to use a hair drier but avoid getting it close to the puppy as you can easily burn it. 

8. You can finish off the process by brushing the fur with the soft brush to straighten its coat for a smooth appearance.
The first bathe experience matters a lot to the young puppy, it will make a difference on its next bathe so you have to ensure that you do everything right from the first time. 

It is important to keep you pet safe from the harsh winter conditions with SafePaw pet safe ice melter.

Worst Snowstorms In U.S. History: Will 2016 Make This List?

The 1888 Great Blizzard
This Great Blizzard started in March 12 and led to more than 50 inches of snow in different areas. In fact it led to more than 52 feet of snow, with more than 400 people dead in the North Eastern region. In the capital city alone, that is New York, it left almost 200 dead.

The 1978 Blizzard
This snowstorm happened in February 1978 with snow falling in every place. In Rhode Island alone, it led to more than 40 feet. During this period the snow fell for a continuous 33 hours causing millions of damage to property.

Storm of the Century
This is another snowstorm that happened in 1993. Here, the cyclone moving across the Mexican Gulf led to the falling of snow in Southeast, Northeast and Mid Atlantic. It led to the destruction of roofs, trapping hiking entourage and leaving 270 dead. At the end of the mishap, it left 56 inches of snow in Tennessee and 50 in North Carolina. This storm is also known to cause air transport chaos in the East Coast.

Presidents Day Storm
This is one of the recent snowstorms happening in 2003 reaching a height of 16.7 feet. This snowstorm affected Boston and Washington DC during the weekend. It is said that this arose as a result of El Nino heat. It also resulted to heavy snow, bitter cold and whiteout conditions. In Reagan, Washington and Baltimore airport, it reached 28.2 inches of snow.

Megalopolitan Blizzard
This blizzard occurred in February 11 1983. It reached 16.6 inches. This storm affected areas in Northwest Montgomery and parts of Frederick. This is the highest and most notable snow to be recorded in the area and it brought the region to a standstill. It shut down metro and major airports.

The 1996 Blizzard
This is one of the worst snowstorms in the US history during the winter season. It mainly affected the Northeast and led to billions of dollars in damage. The weather forecasters say the snow fell to a high of 35 inches with Philadelphia getting 35 feet. After the snow, there was flooding.

The Snowmageddon
This snowstorm happened in February. It came as two storms leaving a trail of destruction and record. In Washington, it left 32 inches of snow and during the second storm, almost 70% of the country was covered by snow.

1996 Blizzard
This happened in the 6th of January 1996 beginning in the morning and leaving a 12 inch trail of fallen snow within 24 hours. This led to the closure of the federal govt services for up to a week and led to losses estimate to be worth 600 million dollars.

Protect your pets against snow and ice with SafePaw pet safe ice melter.

Will The United States Get More Snow In February?

There is a likelihood that multiple storms in the coming week could merge with colder air settling into the east of the United States. This will in turn bring snow to some parts of the region. After almost-record warmth experienced in mid last week, colder air is expected to arrive into stages from later this week going into February. 
 
Gentle weather expected this weekend will change to more extreme in the course of next week. Several storms could result that are likely to have a considerable impact in parts of eastern US. Anywhere from late in the weekend up to next week, the jet stream will plunge southwards into the central states. This stream of strong winds aloft will lead to arctic air pouring southward over the Midwest and the Plains. 
 
According to meteorologist Henry Margusity, should that storm strengthen fast enough and pull in cold air at the last minute, there is a likelihood of a change to wet snow occurring. This would take place in the eastern parts of South and North Carolina during Sunday’s storm. Also, a second storm is likely to have wintry effect for the Northeast and the mid-Atlanta. 
 
By Tuesday of next week, the air is likely to be sufficiently cold enough to induce snow farther east, probably right into the Atlantic coast. All in all, how fast the formation of second storm occurs will determine the extent of the mid-Atlantic region gets accumulating snow. The chances of this accumulating snow and the likelihood of a significant snowstorm will rise further north from the mid-Atlantic’s upper part to New England. This will span between Tuesday and early Wednesday. 

Make sure to have Safe Paw ice melter ready for the storm.
 
The upcoming storm could trigger some snow during Tuesday’s New Hampshire primary. As is the case with any pattern change, a period of uncertainty exists as well as likelihood for swings in weather forecast. Meteorologist Elliot Abrams admits that it is too early to predict what will happen until it is gauged how the two storms and the colder weather will interact with one another. 
 
Abrams is of the opinion that the driving force that will push the storm out to the eastern sea is an Alberta clipper system. This is a system whose origin is near the province of Alberta in western Canada. These fast-moving systems that are often without moisture can bring light to moderate rain and snow. 
 
The blizzard that was experienced in the US east coast in late January could have been the sequel to the above-mentioned event. Given that February is often the snowiest month of the winter, there is likelihood that it will be even snowier this year. Weather experts say that this could be due to the El Nino weather phenomenon. The historic blizzard brought much of densely populated East Coast to a standstill. A snowy gridlock closed businesses and government operations in Washington for almost three days. With more snow expected in February, there could be an increase in demand for home heating fuels, and more people are likely to stay at home. 

Make sure to have Safe Paw ice melter ready for the storm.

How Much Snow Did Winter Storm Jonas Bring?

Winter has been known to produce some of the most severe snowstorm in North America in the past few years most probably due to global warming. Mid January saw the highest ever recorded snow levels for over a decade in most parts of North America especially the eastern section thanks to snowstorm Jonas.

New Records Set
Previous records in the East Coast were no match compared to Jonas. Winter Storm Jonas became the first ever snowstorm to bring up to 2 feet or more of snow to parts of NYC and Baltimore. Previous records stood at about 20 inches in some sections of Washington DC, Baltimore, Pennsylvania and NYC which dated back to 1996. However, Jonas came along with new records in these cities. Washington D.C. for instance recorded snowfall records of up to 2 feet (24 inches) and above bringing the urban city to a halt. New snow fall records were also reported in Baltimore, Pennsylvania, New York and JFK Airport.

Damages and Casualties
Widespread effects and casualties were reported across the East Coast region with transportation being the major casualty thanks to over 20 inches (51cm) of snow covering most parts of the cities.

A total of 55 fatalities were reported in Virginia, New Jersey, North Carolina, New York City, Washington DC, South Carolina and Massachusetts. Virginia recorded the highest number of fatalities with over 12 people reportedly killed. It’s estimated that more than 478,000 people lost power with over 147,000 households located in North Carolina. This was attributed to wind gusts traveling at speeds of up to 47 mph which damaged numerous trees and brought down power lines.

In Glengarry Maryland, snow depth of up to 42 inches (110 cm) was recorded making it the highest ever snow record to date in Maryland. In Baltimore, a large section of the Ocean City fishing pier was destroyed by high winds and rough seas. The National Guard was called in to offer assistance in West Virginia where Interstate 77 was completely shut down.

Coastal flooding took place in New Jersey and Delaware during the early morning of January 23 which saw new tide records set. Delaware recorded high tides of up to 32 km of dunes along the oceanfront section. This led to emergency evacuation in parts of Oak Orchard and Long Neck.

An estimated economic loss of between $500 million and $3 billion was recorded in the affected areas. It’s also estimated that the airline industry lost up to $200 Million dollars in revenue. The positive side of the storm is the fact that it occurred over the weekend when most businesses were closed.

Many schools especially in DC, Maryland, Baltimore, Pennsylvania and Philadelphia remained closed throughout the three days storm. Some government offices were also closed in Washington DC.

How to Eradicate Snow around Your Household Vicinity
It’s easy to eradicate snow using Safe Paw Ice Melter. Safe Paw is a technologically advanced salt free pack which is 100% safe on your pets and building structures and guarantees you 100% effectiveness. It’s also available in 4 different packs namely pet, grocery, hardware and mass merchandise stores.

How Safe Paw Works
Safe Paw has a two layer timed release action which functions by melting the ice and breaking the surface tension. The crystal internal core penetrates the ice and destabilizes it leading to its breakdown. It also attracts sunlight to speed up the ice melting process during the day.

Once the ice has broken been down, an invisible shield is left intact for up to 3 days. This allows easy shoveling which also prevents sliding and eventual accidents.

Go Green – What You Can Do To Stop The Rapid Ice Melt of The Glaciers

At Safe Paw we love helping the environment and reducing our carbon footprint. We talk about ice melter a lot and felt it was only right to address the ice melt of the glaciers. Some of this ice melt is cause by other ice melters that use salt in their recipe. With Safe Paw you can be sure that you will be reducing your carbon foot print and helping the environment by not using salt based products or other products that hurt the environment. Here is a link to a page that shows what Safe Paw is made from.

CO2 (carbon dioxide) is one of the main causes of all misfortunes of the earth, like global warming, which causes the melting of glaciers, floods and tsunamis. The main “producers” of CO2 are heavy industries, energy production facilities that combust oil, coal and gas, general cutting of tropical forests, livestock industry, and, of course, us – the usual people – the consumers.

Just by working at a computer, sitting behind the wheel of the car and simply turning on the light, we expend energy, and hence – the resources of the earth, which leads to the overall increase of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

So, what can you do to stop this tendency? Each of us can contribute to stopping the rapid ice melt of the glaciers and saving the planet, and here are a few suggestions how to do it :

– Electric power

Saving electricity allows you to:

1) reduce the consumption of natural resources,
2) reduce the emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere, and
3) preserve the purity of water and forests

How to do this:

a) Buy energy-efficient refrigerators that are properly labeled with A, A +, A ++ classes.
b) Buy induction ranges for cooking. They heat only the bottom of the pan, the heating starts immediately when turned on and stops when you turn it off. Induction ranges consume twice less energy than usual electric types.
c) Fully load the dishwasher and the washing machine – this will reduce the amount of washing sessions. Also washing at lower temperatures can reduce power consumption by 80%.
d) Set your computer to a sleep mode every time you take a break. Turn off your office computer at night and before the weekend – as even in a sleep mode it still consumes energy.
e) Turn towards alternative, eco-friendly and renewable energy sources, such as wind, water, and solar power.

– Water

a) Take a shower instead of a bath. Turn off the water while soaping or brushing your teeth.
b) Wash your dish immediately after eating – it will take less water than later when you will have to scrape off dried food debris.
c) Do not buy bottled water if you are sure that the tap water is safe to drink. If not sure – install a water filter.

– Carbon dioxide

a) Eat less meat
b) Walk on foot or use bicycles, or other energy-efficient vehicles.
c) When taking a country trip better fully load one car with friends, instead of taking two half-empty cars, or travel by train.
d) Consume responsibly. Do not buy more than you need. Do not buy what you do not need.

– Plastic

a) Buy products in cardboard package if possible.
b) Use plastic bags several times.
c) Do not use plastic bags for keeping foods at home, use special reusable containers.
d) Reduce the amount of plastic waste by squeezing it – in this way you reduce the amount of garbage in the garbage truck, and thus, reduce CO2 emissions during transportation of garbage.

Tell friends and colleagues how to live ecologically and economically. You don’t need to be superman to save the planet. Make it simple and smart: raise a child, build an eco friendly house and plant a tree!

Ice Melting Products That Cause Less Damage To Your Concrete Surfaces

There are a number of ice melt products that cause less harm to concrete. A larger number of people tend to think that concrete is impervious to almost every substance. The fact of the matter is that concrete acts almost like a blotter and as such, it absorbs some of the chemicals used as deicers.

When you spread sodium chloride or potassium chloride on your driveway or sidewalks, it will keep it free of ice down to about 20 degrees Fahrenheit. However, some of the salt-water mix (brine) will eventually seep into the concrete. Once the temperature drops below 20 degrees Fahrenheit, this mixture of water and salt will freeze. The freezing of this brine will cause the water to expand and therefore cause cracks to appear on the concrete surface.

The solution to this problem lies with the use of ice melt products that offer greater protection to your concrete surfaces.

Some of these deicers include the following:

Safe Paw – The most safe product on the market. Safe Paw™ is the only 100% salt-free ice melter on the market and it is 100% safe for pets, children, surfaces, and the environment. Safe Paw’s pellets are green to make it easy for consumers to distinguish it from rock salt and salt-based ice melters. Safe Paw benefits include:

Guaranteed safe for pets and children
Environmentally safe
Won’t harm decking of any kind
Safe on asphalt, concrete, and pavers
Safe on plants and shrubs
Proprietary traction agent (helps prevent
slips and falls)
Won’t stain or destroy flooring

Calcium Chloride
This is a traditional ice melt which melts ice down to temperatures of -25 degrees Fahrenheit. The heat that it gives off as it dissolves help melt ice easily. Calcium chloride has a greater ability to attract and retain moisture from its surroundings. This allows it to dissolve easily and therefore start the melting process faster.

Magnesium Chloride
Magnesium chloride has almost the same qualities as sodium chloride but it is more popular. It is less damaging to concrete and safer on plants.

-Urea
Urea is commonly used as a fertilizer but it also used as an effective ice melt product. It melts ice down to 15 degrees Fahrenheit. However, over application can cause damage to vegetation.

-Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA)
This product is made from dolomitic limestone and acetic acid. It is less harmful to concrete and vegetation. However, it becomes less effective as temperatures dip to less than 20 degrees Fahrenheit. As opposed to other ice melt products, it does not form brine-like salts. It works by preventing snow particles from sticking to each other on the concrete surface.

-Magic minus Zero
This is a liquid de-icing agent. It is manufactured from a blend of magnesium chloride mixed with an agricultural by-product of the distilling process. The product is non-toxic and bio-degradable. It has a lower corrosion index than that of distilled water. This product can be applied directly to paved surfaces before the onset of winter.

Natural Deicers
There are some natural products that can be used as alternatives to chemical dicers. However, they are less effective and they cause less damage to concrete and vegetation. They include the following:

-Sand,
-Sawdust,
-Wood shavings,
-Kitty litter.

Their effectiveness comes from their gritty and anti-slip qualities. They provide good traction that makes it easier to walk on ice. They do not melt the ice. They are usually mixed with ice melter products to minimize the use of chemical deicers.

Precautions

You need to observe the following precautions when using deicers:

– Do not over apply deicing products. Ensure that you follow the instructions on the label carefully,
– Before applying deicing products, clear all the snow from the concrete surfaces,
– Always wear gloves because deicers are corrosive,
– Never use deicing chemicals in new concrete that is not fully cured,
– Remember that all chemical products have a negative effect on the environment. Flush your concrete surfaces with water if you suspect any over application, or where you find any damage on plants.

Tips For Operating A Winter Pet Rescue

It is to be understood that the reasons for operating a pet rescue do not include getting richer and reaping in the tax benefits. Although, your pet rescue could obtain tax exemption as a charitable organization, the rewards are about helping animals. Here are the basic tips for operating a pet rescue from Safe Paw along with the benefits:

Before starting your pet rescue, you must first decide what type of animals you would like to take in and make sure that you have sufficient space as well as funds to care for them in a proper way. Following are step by step information for starting your pet rescue:

Name your pet rescue. Then, incorporate it. In order to qualify for the tax exemption, you must be incorporated. For the instructions on how to incorporate, you may contact the Department of State or Labor. You will be required to create a formal mission statement and the by laws. You need to understand that creating these documents and the rescue policies would help shape your operation.

The next will be to assemble a group of caring and hard-working volunteers. You will have to rely on these volunteers to help with the following aspects:

o Caring the pets
o Cleaning
o Office works
o Fundraising
o Marketing

You might be able to afford employees, but you must understand that the volunteers will be more willing to provide time as well as care for your pet rescue at zero cost. For soliciting volunteers, you may put a message on your pet rescue website, newsletters and/or publications. You will definitely find the volunteers seeking you out.

Now, you have to set up the space for your pet animals. Before setting up your space, make sure that your pet rescue has been zoned for your organization. If your pet rescue has plenty of space, then you can let your dogs run in an open space. However, remember that you will also require some indoor shelter during the poor weather conditions and kennels for your new/sick dogs that need to be kept isolated from the other animals.

You must make sure to align your pet rescue with some local veterinarians as well as groomers who would offer free services or deeper discounts. This is because; your pet rescue would require assistance with the following things:

o Medication
o Spaying
o Neutering
o Examining stray as well as sick dogs
o Grooming

For managing the costs on these aspects, you may ask the pet stores as well as pet food companies for donation or even Safe Paw the best pet safe ice melter. You must place the pets which are adoptable on your website and some other pet stores. Remember that the money that is being collected from the adoption is tax free and can be contributed to the operating costs of your pet rescue.

In addition to the above funds, you must also solicit other donations as your pet rescue would require these for keeping the operations running. In addition, you may take your pets to some events for collecting donations. Here, you could also connect with those who will help your pet rescue in some way.

Salt Isn’t Ideal For Melting Ice

When the ice and snow from winter storms arrive, people usually look for the most efficient and easiest means of melting the ice. Salt has for many years been used for melting the ice. Below we will discuss the potential damages from salt and non-salt products in regards to both the local vegetation as well as the area’s ecosystem.

Risks and control of salt used to melt ice

When the high concentrations of salt build-up on a pavement where the ice melter has been applied, temporary damage to the soil will be inevitable, which will later result to inhibited growth or loss in vegetation. The damage in vegetation comes as a result of dehydration of plant cells once the moisture is extracted by the salts. The best thing is that the salt will quickly be diluted the Mother Nature’s rain, which will eventually allow the soil to return to its initial healthy state.

When it comes to melting the ice on a pavement if you don’t have Safe Paw environmentally friendly ice melter then the following categories of salt could be applied:

Inorganic salt-
Inorganic salt contain chloride Ion. Most people have the idea that the chloride content in the soil together with its effect of the environment is negligible as chlorine is one of the most stable elements in the atmosphere. Examples or inorganic salts are Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, Magnesium Chloride and Calcium Chloride.

Organic salts-
Organic salts contain acetate which is less aggressive on the soils as compared to organic salts. It’s capable of decay (biodegradable). This natural decay process is mostly thought to be ideal for the ecosystem. Generally, Acetate has low demand of oxygen values biologically and this makes it a minor contributor to kill fish. Examples or organic salts are Sodium Acetate, Potassium Acetate, and Calcium Magnesium Acetate.

Risks and controls of non salts used in ice melting
-Common non salt materials used for ice melting are Glycols, Urea and fertilizers. Research has revealed that the use of non salts can have effects to the ecosystem if they are not used properly. Run off into storm sewers from pavements and lawns end up in streams, rivers, and lakes of the ecosystem.

Non salt products with high biological oxygen demand values appear to promote excess nutrients. These excess nutrients then generate excess growth of plants leading to reduction of oxygen in natural waterways hence leading to fish kill. Fish kill then propagates throughout the ecosystem as some animals and birds use fish as their primary source of diet. These birds and animals then die as a result.

Urea and ethylene glycol are primarily used at the airports to melt ice since these products don’t cause rusts on metals.

Fertilizers which contain nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are used primarily to promote the growth of plants. Although urea and fertilizers are not very effective ice melters, they are often present in ice blending blends which are marketed as “green”. If they are used to melt ice, the optional application rates for fertilizers are more than 10 times the rate use for the promotion of plant growth.